And you, do you already know how a student learns in the PYP?
By Pilar Lavín | PYP Coordination
The Primary Years Program (PYP) gives our students the opportunity to be the center of learning and harness their natural curiosity to develop the knowledge, concepts and skills they need to actively learn throughout life.
By learning through inquiry, children’s investigations, in and beyond all disciplines, will serve to reinforce their knowledge and understanding, while providing an opportunity to explore current and pertinent questions.
Day by day our students work on the development and learning of conceptual understanding through the exploration of knowledge in the different disciplines taught in our school.
Our units of inquiry are aimed at working on the content based on concepts of each of the units mentioned. This allows us to cover the diverse issues raised in a transdisciplinary way; which means that the same concept is carried through the different subjects of our curriculum. Thus, in each of the units, the students inquire taking as a principle the assigned concepts and the several questions that arise during their learning process.
As a community we are convinced that the attitudes, as well as the diverse abilities and attributes of our profile can help us to fulfill our goal: to be responsible members of our local, national and global community.
Learning and teaching. Retrieved from https://resources.ibo.org/pyp/works/pyp_11162-51465?lang=es
English literacy, what we need to know
By Iliana Brien | English Coordination
There are steps that are essential in any literacy process, there are other parts of the process that are inherent to the language that is being learned.
Generalities of how we learn to read (reading / blending)?
- You start from the left
- Letters become sounds
- The sounds are combined
- The word is pronounced
Generalities of how we learn to write (writing / segmenting)?
- You hear or think about the word to write
- Sounds are identified from beginning to end
- The letters of each sound are written from left to right
But when it comes to English, there are some topics that we must know in depth to achieve a successful literacy process.
The particularities of the English alphabet
English has a very complicated alphabetic code; in fact, it is known as an “opaque” code.
Alphabetic languages, such as German, Spanish, Italian, and Finnish, have very simple alphabetic codes. The symbol-sound relationship in these languages is easy and they are known as “transparent” alphabetic codes.
Learning to read (decode) and write (encode) in these languages is not a problem, especially when using a synthetic phonetic method.
Many problems with the alphabetic code in English have been caused by the influence of other languages.
The digraph ‹ch› has three sounds in English:
· The / ch / sound as in church, chops, rich;
· The / k / sound as in Christmas, chemist, architect (Greek influence)
· The / sh / sound as in champagne, chef, machine (French influence).
In English you have more sounds (phonemes) than letters to represent those sounds.
The accepted number of sounds in English is 44, and yet there are only 26 letters. This means that some sounds have to be represented by two letters, which are called digraphs, like, /ai/ rain, /ou/ loud, /sh/ ship, etc.
Sometimes more than two letters are used to represent a sound; for example, the /igh/ in night.
The digraphs representing sounds would not be a serious problem if there were only one digraph for each sound. Unfortunately, there can be many ways to represent a single sound.
For example, let’s look at the nine alternative ways to represent the long sound /a/:
- ai … rain, frail, daily
- ay … say, play, crayon
- a-e … date, name, lemonade
- a … apron, angel, change
- ei … feint, vein, veil
- ey … they, grey, obey
- eigh… eight, neigh, sleigh
- et … ballet, sorbet, buffet
- ea … great, break, steak
All of this means that instead of having 44 letters and letter combinations to represent the 44 sounds of English, there are more than 170 alternative ways to represent the sounds.
For some children, this amount of learning is easy, but for others it is quite a challenge.
Consequently, the alphabetic code should be introduced calmly and ensuring that all children master it and understand what they are learning.
Based on Jolly Phonics.
By Paulina Cisneros | Psychopedagogy Department
Inclusion has been a clear concern for educational institutions, especially in the last decade. The production of knowledge, visibility and awareness about the educational experience of students from social minorities or who are simply different has been much greater in recent periods. However, there is still a long way to go regarding the quality of education received by people who are not only diverse on a social level, but also that learn and process differently on a cognitive level, for example, students who are neurodivergent. -sometimes abbreviated as ND-.
Neurodivergence is a general term to refer to individuals living with autism primarily, but it also encompasses dyslexia, dyspraxia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or other conditions that lead them to navigate cognitive and emotional processes differently from the norm. The term was coined in the 90s, when activists for the rights of people with autism such as Jim Sinclair, Kathy Lissner Grant and Donna Williams founded the International Autism Network, under the principle that this condition is not a disease, but a cognitive processing style. Sizing autism and other mental process differences in people is the first step to offer a truly inclusive educational experience for all according to their way of learning and perceiving the world.
They are not different capacities, they are diverse processes
One of the most persistent stigmas regarding how we consider neurodivergences is considering them diseases or disabilities, which undermine the potential of students to adapt to the standard and develop the skills that everyone else work under the imposed norm.
The clinical psychologist and teacher Elisa Luz Soto Ceballos presented, for the Mexican newspaper ‘La Tribuna’, a fundamental perspective to approach neurodivergences in an effective way. “It is not bad or deficient, but it is a variety of the human brain that has other strengths and other challenges.” Although this point of view offers new ways to generate a quality educational experience for neurodivergent people, it is not shared by the entire scientific community, nor by families or individuals affected by these conditions.
In a text for the Washington Post, journalist and editor Alisa Opar talks about the diversity of voices within a movement to make neurodivergences visible, specifically about autism. Opar argues that there is a community with different opinions on the basis of how to define neurodivergences. One side would be parents with the most severe spectra of mental conditions, who accompany and support children with intellectual disabilities, limited language skills and who can be a danger to themselves when an efficient care and education system is not established. For them, problems such as deeper spectrum autism are medical conditions, usually requiring intensive and constant treatment.
The other group are people with functional neurodivergences, that is, they may have conditions that are an obstacle to social adaptation or some aspects of learning, but these challenges do not compromise the basic aspects of their cognitive capacity, physical integrity or human dignity.
Although neurodivergences can be classified in any case as the set of different mental and cognitive processes, the dilemma between these two factions would be to define whether the above represents only a divergence or a mental disorder. For this, it would be necessary to know the levels of functionality of the divergences. An individual with high functionality can make use of resources destined to the development of their specific cognitive processes and their social integration. In this context, it would be correct to refer to neurodivergences as elements outside the norm but not the ability to prevent patients from not being treated. The key to deciphering what spectrum a student is on and how her case can be worked on is a timely diagnosis.
Integrated education or special education
To ensure the quality of the educational experience in a neurodiverse classroom, timely diagnosis is key. In this context, the role of school psychologists should expand, work as a team with families and teachers to assess needs on a case-by-case basis and discern whether the atypical cognitive character of students would allow them to get the best out of classes within a general student population.
The work of psychologists and teachers should not be restricted to visualizing only students, the education of parents on the subject, as well as support, is crucial to ensure the emotional well-being and access to education of neurodiverse students. Reconciling parental expectations with what is known about neuropathies and the future potential of their children is an extremely complex task that is often left out of perspective when it comes to neurodiversity in the educational sphere. It is necessary to consider this aspect for the elaboration of effective strategies for the integration or specialized education of students with different cognitive abilities.
Jim Sinclair encompasses the idea of an integrated existence and human dignity of neurodiverse people with a conclusive thought, which, although it is focused on people with autism, gives a transcendental guideline on how to begin to dimension neurodiversity in family and educational spaces.
“You don’t lose a child to autism. You lose it because you kept waiting for the idea of another child who never existed.” In his essay “Don’t mourn for us,” Sinclair summarizes in a few words everything that is needed to lay the foundations of an educational future for the neurodiverse student body: acknowledge their existence on their terms, not ours.
By Ana Paola Gerdingh | Coordination of Student Activities
Every living thing needs sleep to survive. Even your dog or cat snuggle up for naps. Animals sleep for the same reason you do: to give your body a little vacation.
Sleep is not only necessary for the body; it is also important for the brain. While no one knows exactly what work the brain does during sleep, some scientists believe that it classifies and stores information, replenishes chemicals, and solves problems while you doze.
It is not a secret that sleep is essential for the health and development of our children. Sleep in children promotes feeling alert, having a good memory and having a better attitude, among many other things. Children who get enough and good sleep, do better and are less prone to behavior problems and irritability.
When the body does not have enough hours to rest, children may feel tired or grumpy, or they may not be able to think clearly. They may find it difficult to follow directions or they might have a fight with a friend over something that doesn’t really matter. A normally simple homework assignment may seem impossible, or they may feel awkward playing a sport or playing their favorite instrument.
The stages of sleep
A study carried out by the Department of Social Service in the United States, concludes that some stages of sleep are necessary to recover energy, while others are more related to learning and storing memories.
When the child begins to fall asleep, the brain kicks in and tells the body how to sleep. As they fall asleep, they begin to go through the five stages of sleep:
In this stage, the brain sends a signal to the muscles to relax. It also tells the heart to beat more slowly and makes the body temperature drop slightly.
After a while, the second stage begins, which is light sleep. During this stage, it is still possible to wake up easily. They will likely wake you up with low noises.
When they are in this stage, they are in deep sleep, called “slow wave sleep.” The brain sends a message to lower blood pressure. The body does not feel the temperature of the air around it; that is, they will not notice if it is hot or cold in the room. At this stage, it is much more difficult to wake up, but it is at this stage of sleep that some people may present sleepwalking or talking in their sleep episodes.
This is the deepest sleep and is also considered slow wave sleep. It is very difficult to wake up in this stage of sleep, and if you do finally wake up, you will be confused for a few minutes. As in the third stage, some people may have episodes of sleepwalking or talking as they move from the fourth stage to a lighter stage of sleep.
Known as REM, which stands for Rapid Eye Movements, because the eyes move in all directions. The brain is at its peak, even more than when we are awake. The heartbeat and breathing rate are fast and irregular. On the opposite, the muscles are so relaxed that they cannot move; the body is paralyzed.
That is why it is important that parents help their children develop good sleeping habits from an early age, instilling in them a well-established routine that allows our little ones to obtain an ideal sleep hygiene for their development.
Good sleep is attributed several positive consequences, both physically and mentally, to adequate rest periods. They ensure that the benefits of sleeping well affect, above all, 3 essential factors for our well-being:
- It increases our performance, allows us to think more clearly, react quickly and structure memories. The brain mechanisms related to learning and memory are, in fact, highly active during sleep. The brain saves what it has learned during the day and memory is consolidated; this occurs in the REM phase.
- Improves mood, reducing irritability and the chances of suffering from depression, as well as behavior and the ability to relate to others, especially in the case of children and adolescents.
- It contributes to maintaining a good state of health, to such an extent that, if we take by habit not to sleep enough, we will be increasing the risk of suffering from hypertension, various heart diseases, obesity and diabetes. In addition, during sleep it increases the production of some hormones that promote the growth of children, develop muscle mass, strengthen the immune system and stimulate cell repair. Our temperature drops, allowing the body to cool down and the heart to rest. In addition, muscle repair and brain cleansing occur.
Every child is different and the number of hours of sleep he needs varies depending on his age and physical activity. The following chart shows the advisable number of hours of sleep, including naps, for children up to the age of twelve.
The Importance of Daily Routines
The best suggestion for children to develop good sleeping habits is to adopt a night life routine. This helps them to even keep control of their moment of feeling sleepy, providing them with a routine that makes it easier for them to maintain an organization in all areas of their life.
An example of a healthy bedtime routine could be this:
- A light snack.
- A time for family conversation.
- A time of play or study.
- Putting on nightwear.
- Brushing teeth.
- Read a story.
- A quiet room with a comfortable temperature.
- Put the child to bed.
- Say goodbye and leave the room.
Suggestions for a healthy routine
- Have a set time to go to bed each night.
- Make bedtime a positive and relaxing experience without television or video games.
- Watching television before going to bed can interfere with the ability to fall asleep and stay asleep.
- Reserve your child’s favorite relaxing and non-stimulating activities to take place in their room.
- Keep the environment (for example, light and temperature) constant at night.
Tips to contribute to the good sleep habits of the child
Encourage the child to fall asleep on his own
Try to get our child to establish positive associations towards sleep. Parental help should not be necessary for the child to fall asleep. A child who falls asleep on his own will be able to fall back to sleep more easily if he wakes up during the night. Waking up sometimes during the night is normal and, sometimes, it is advisable to check that he is well and then let the little one just go back to sleep, as we adults do.
Make it difficult for the child to fall asleep again when he wakes up
Our presence in the child’s room every time the child wakes up intensifies the subsequent need for it so that the child can go back to sleep. Even babies who are carried on their shoulders every time they wake up quickly learn not to go back to sleep on their own. Of course, there are times when assistance and care should not be denied. It is important for the child to receive a clear and consistent message that the expectation is for him to fall asleep with no help, without showing complete indifference.
Common facts and myths about children and sleep
Myth # 1: The child must sleep on his stomach.
Babies should sleep on their backs. According to the initiative “Back to Sleep” (a pun that indicates both “back to sleep” and “sleeping on your back”), sleeping on your back reduces the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. The American Academy of Pediatrics further recommends that parents do not allow young children to sleep on a waterbed, sofa, pillow, soft mattress, or other soft surfaces.
Myth # 2: Parents should wait until the child is asleep before putting him to bed.
Children should be put to bed when they are sleepy, but still awake. This facilitates the association of the time of sleep with the crib or bed. We will create independence so that our little one has good sleep hygiene.
Myth # 3: Children sleep poorly at night if they take naps.
In the little ones, naps and a night’s sleep are both necessary and independent from each other. Generally, children who nap are less irritable and sleep better at night. Despite the differences between each of the children, after six months of age, naps of between half an hour and two hours are predictable and generally disappear between the ages of two and five. After five, daytime sleepiness or the need to take naps requires medical investigation because it could be due to other considerations in your health.
Sleep disorders that children can have
- Nightmares: Nightmares occur during periods of transition, stress, or changes in the child’s routine. They usually occur late at night and can be remembered the next day. Fortunately, nightmares tend to disappear spontaneously. Effective strategies to eliminate the problem are: encourage the child to talk about what happened during the nightmare, present pleasant images before he falls asleep, and avoid television before going to bed.
- Dread or Night Terror and Sleepwalking: Night terrors and sleepwalking occur most frequently between the ages of four and eight. These sleep disturbances usually occur early in the evening. The child is in a state of sleepiness and it is usual that he does not remember what happened the next day. Trying to wake and comfort the child is often not effective and can extend the event. It is important to remove dangerous objects from the room to prevent the child from injuring himself while sleepwalking. Getting enough sleep is vitally important to reduce the frequency of terrors and sleepwalking.
- Sleep Apnea: Sleep apnea is a serious problem in which pauses in breathing occur during sleep. Children with apnea routinely snore, sleep is restless, and may become drowsy during the day (sleepiness is more common among adults with apnea). Hypertrophy (enlargement) of the tonsils and adenoids, nasal allergies, obesity, and other medical problems are important factors in the development of sleep apnea in children. There are several ways to treat apnea; therefore, it is of great importance that you consult your physician, confirm the diagnosis, and receive treatment.
- Narcolepsy: Narcolepsy usually begins during puberty, but can begin even earlier. Children with narcolepsy develop drowsiness and “uncontrollable sleep attacks” during which they fall asleep against their will. Narcolepsy requires a definitive diagnosis by a doctor.
In conclusion, good sleep will favor our children in their health and development, in addition to providing parents with a space for themselves or to enjoy as a couple.
El sueño y su salud – Enciclopedia médica – MedlinePlus
https://medlineplus.gov › … › Enciclopedia médica
La importancia del sueño y dormir bien – Discapnet
https://www.discapnet.es › salud › especial-sobre-el-sueno
La Importancia del Sueño en Niños – GAES JUNIOR
https://www.gaesjunior.com › actualidad-junior › la-impo…
Qué es el sueño y por qué es necesario que los niños duerman
https://www.rchsd.org › health-articles › qu-es-el-sueo-…
¿Qué pasa mientras dormimos? – Universidad EAFIT
https://www.eafit.edu.co › reddelaspreguntas › Paginas
Realities of the use of technology in preschool age
By María Guadalupe Landa Tinajero | Technology Teacher
Today, the use of technology is part of our days, it accompanies us in most of our work, it is even part of our lives, it is present in memories, projects and tasks.
Nowadays it is essential to know it and know how to use it, knowing in turn the virtues and weaknesses that technology offers us, since it is estimated that more than 80% of all communication that human beings have is naturally non-verbal, that is, we communicate with the language that our body and voice can express, so it is important to ensure that children under 6 years of age spend time on interactive screens, approximately 30 minutes a day, (interactive screens are on devices where the child can control their own actions such as games, drawings, etc.)
The most appropriate games for children are those with calm sounds, with positive actions; where they can create, design, assemble among other activities; for example, cooking games, fishing, painting, among others.
It is worth mentioning that technology must be controlled, hence the importance of taking care of the digital content that is developed, as well as their mood while the little ones interact, since it damages their neural system, since their creativity, the ease to imagine, socialize or creating physical games, even developing different roles within it, are affected, especially when screen time is high.
Neuroscience research suggests that interactive screens — whether phones, tablets, computers, or video games — produce an abnormal amount of dopamine, resulting in short circuits in children’s brains. As a result, there is attention deficit, aggression, sudden mood swings, changes in blood pressure and blood sugar level. Demyelination of neurons also occurs, so children’s learning levels can be low.
Undoubtedly, technology is innovative and useful, mostly in recent years, because thanks to it we can work and study remotely among other actions. Thus, it is important to mention that if it is given the appropriate use and time, it can help us to enhance content and new learnings every day.